Two-nation theory 2.0 | Pakistan Today

Two-nation theory 2.0

It is Sunni vs Shia this time around

Even though the original two-nation theory drowned in the Bay of Bengal, some of the most illustrious seamen and fishermen still hog the coastline vying to unearth the theory from underneath the water. It is said of the theory that it didn’t even border on being watertight, and hence sunk with ease amidst the tsunami of 1971. And so after 41 years of staring at a gaping two-nation theory shaped hole with closed eyes, we now have its updated version that is significantly more impermeable than the original, which, if one were to be honest, would’ve drowned in a bathtub if one left the tap open for more than a minute.

The original two-nation theory threw all the commonalities between Hindus and Muslims of the Indian subcontinent out of the proverbial window, and showcased the fact that Muslims and Hindus are ostensibly two different nations and can’t for the love of god, live together. Two-nation theory 2.0 not only makes a scathing mockery of that assertion, but unlike the first version it actually underscores two veritably separate nations who despite having the aforementioned commonalties, and more, are as distinct as a pack of hyenas and a flock of lambs.

Unlike the Hindu-Muslim division, the Shia-Sunni divide is lopsided butchery. When juxtaposed with the genocide and massacre of Shias in Pakistan, the Hindu-Muslim differences in India seem like brotherly disagreements. And the Shia community in Pakistan can only envy the discrimination that Muslims face in India. Furthermore, while Muslims can – and do – live safely in India, it is quite obvious that Shias can no longer feel secure in Pakistan.

When one community is being targeted, in what is barefaced ethnic cleansing, and the other community remains shushed about it at best and endorses it at worst, you know the division between the groups is unbridgeable. Those that coined the original two-nation theory overlooked the fact that believing in the same god and the same prophet might not suffice in uniting you into one nation, and that is the raison d’etre behind two-nation theory 2.0.

Just like Muhammad bin Qasim’s imperialistic surge towards India in 712 AD is touted as the foundation of the Hindu-Muslim two nation theory, the Shia-Sunni two nation theory traces its origin back to the same epoch when Umayyads were busy sidelining the Shias in the hub of Islam. Their lead was followed appositely by the Abbassids, Ottomans and then the Mughals for the next millennium or so, as the Sunni hierarchies violently tightened screws on the Shias inhabiting their region.

In the context of the Indian subcontinent, it was the Fatwa-e-Alamgiri compiled by Aurangzeb “the great Mughal emperor” Alamgir and Shah “the spiritual light” Wali Ullah, who should be dubbed the founding fathers of two-nation theory 2.0 in our neck of the woods – that brought together some of the most renowned kafirometres in the world to declare the infidelity of the Shias. Recent fatwas by the likes of Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ), Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) and Darul Uloom Deoband are the offshoots of the aforementioned compilation of fatwas.

The next father figure of two-nation theory in the Indian subcontinent is General Ziaul Haq, who hoarded Saudi riyals in exchange for granting the godfathers of Islam a playground to stage the two-nation theory 2.0 in all its blood and goriness. From the annihilation of 118 Shias in Therih in 1963 to the 22 massacred in Lahore and Karachi in 1978, Shia killings were witnessed before Zia became the caretaker of Islam as well. But it was under Zia that the two-nation theory 2.0 became ubiquitous in madrassas, Islamic Republic of Pakistan transmuted into Takfiri Deobandi Republic of Pakistan and Shia discrimination metamorphosed into Shia genocide.

Modern day leading proponents of the ideology, like Malik Ishaq – acquitted more than 30 times over charges of homicide and terrorism – , Mahmoud Baber – “proud” murderer of 14 and Ahmed Ludhianvi – SSP chief and the embodiment of paranoia with regards to Shia – are the Jinnah, Sir Syed and Iqbal of two-nation theory 2.0. And these ideological guardians are hell bent upon creating a separate homeland for the Shias in graveyards all across Pakistan, which would rubberstamp their entry into heaven where God and his promised luxuries await them with arms wide open.

More than 20,000 Shias have been killed in Pakistan ever since the country’s inception, with more than 500 being executed in 2012 alone. The back-to-back blasts in Quetta over the past two months, killing over 200 Shias prove the verisimilitude of two-nation theory 2.0, as reaction from majority of the other half of the community – more than 50 percent of which endorse the theory by declaring Shias as non-Muslims according to a PEW study – ran the whole gamut from indifference to complaints over traffic blockade.

In a country where volcanoes of protests erupt over the killings of “Muslim brothers” in Palestine, Kashmir, Syria and Myanmar, the deafening silence from the Sunni half of the two-nation divide vindicates that Shias can no longer feel at home in Pakistan – the country whose founding father was an Ismaeli Shia himself.

As two-nation theory 2.0 widens the gaping cracks between the two communities and lays the foundation of a Shia exodus, it won’t be long before Takfiri Deobandi heavyweights find another target in the Islamic Royal Rumble of Pakistan. Two-nation theory 3.0 could see the Barelvis under the gun, followed by other sects, as the religion of ‘piece’ keeps on throwing constituent pieces out of its anatomy.

The writer is a financial journalist and a cultural critic. Twitter: @khuldune, Email: [email protected]


  1. Aik Kay said:

    We are reaping the fruit of that flawed and twisted theory. Indeed, this country is nothing more than a lab for Islamic experiments (as wished by our great Quaid)!

  2. Quake said:

    Very well written article. Those that are silent are with the terrorists. Thank you for writing this.

  3. Sohail said:

    Well written. I wish if media can somehow concentrate on improving the situation by teaching the ignorant lot, who go blind when molvinized. Atleast Media can tell what is the point of view of Sunni and Shia sects.

    The hate is there and it will remain as over centuries, the masses have believed in story tellers and explaining moulvi's versions.

    If we cannot stop that, the debate is just like a drowning man assessing time left.

  4. Omer said:

    Wondering why this kind of writing is not published in Urdu? Hope our masses can also understand the true spirit of Islam.

  5. uzma said:

    only such articles could show the real motives behind political games as this is not the war of Islamism or sectarianism but the war of rule .Well done keep showing this nation its real picture.

  6. Khalid said:

    It is surprising that the author brings up the Two Nation Theory in only its religious context which came about in the 40s and does not relate it to history of this land that we live in. The Kathiawar salient has divided Ganges Vally and its plains and the Indus Valley and its plains for thousands of years. Indus Valley civilization which includes Mehrgarh (7000 BC) in Balochistan , Harappa (3300 BC) in Punjab, and Mohenjodaro (2000 BC) in Sindh, also thrived on this land and is over 9000 years old. For most part of 9000 years of known history, this land was never part of India except during the era of Mauryas, Muslims and British. The Two Nation Theory actually is over 9000 years old fact – only in 1940s, it was brought up again because of religion. The author needs to re-read his own history before attempting to re-write and propagate a wrong version.

  7. Major said:

    Excuse me Khalid, please check the map of Indus valley civilization, it runs from kashmire into pakistani punjab, indian punjab, haryana, rajasthan, maharshtra, with the most spectecular site of economic being and ending in Lothal Gujarat, You dont even know what you are talking about.The first Hindu God, SHiva or Lord of all animals and also the mother goddesses and first things about the HIndu religion stem from it. The recent discovery in Harayana iNdia of Rakhighari actually has shown the dried up river saraswati, showing that it was climatic change and no an in vasion that resulted in rivers changing course. Your are trying to say it has nothing to do with India, Good luck Morones, happy Arabnization and Implosion in 10 years, keep this up.

    • Khalid said:

      The core pf Indus Valley Civilization is Pakistan. The places in India that you are so proudly are talking about are on the fringes of this map. I wish I could post the map here so that people like you could not spread wrong information. In any case, majority of these locations, except a few, were later emergence when the Indus Valley Civilization was either in decline or had faded out.

      The artifacts that you are talking about were of the later era and not that of Indus Valley Civilization. Most of the archeologists, other than the Indian Hindutva ideologues, have confirmed these facts.

      Hindu Vedic ideology emanated after fading out of this Civilization and did not have any relation to this urban civilization whereas Hindu Vedic culture was entirely based on rural setting.

      This area which is now Pakistan housed the major core of Indus Valley Civilization. And out of over 9000 years of its known history, it remained as one entity with the Ganges valley only under the Mauryas, Muslims and British – for the remaining 9000 years it was a separate entity.

      And therefore, the Two Nation Theory is not an invention on 1947, it emanated over 9000 years ago. And this is a proven archeological, geological and historical fact. And yes, the landmass of Pakistan does not have any link with India – whatever there was, was temporary and was corrected again in 1947.

      Large majority of the people of this land are the original sons of the soil and have nothing to do with Arabanization, if at all there is something known as Arabanization.

      India never existed in the form till Muslims created it. Even the name India was given to it by foreigners.

      It is you moron Indians who need to find out your true identity if there was one indeed. Your own Justice Katju said that over 90% of Indians are immigrants. India is a falsely created country which never existed till Muslims forced it together and its Hindu Hindutvadis are going to break it back to nothing that it was.

      Prove it before Muslims created India that there ever an India that existed.

      • indian said:

        katju even said pakistan is a fake country… and he doesn't believe in its existence…agreed??/ 🙂

      • Pankaj said:

        Yeh problem hoti hey jab koi mulla english pad jata hey. He try to justify his illogical thinking using some imaginary and fabricated facts. Another Jakir Naik……..

      • Noreen Saeed said:

        As far as I know Pakistan was not created on the basis of Indus valley civilization vs Vedic civilization. Two Nation Theory states that Hindus are a nation and Muslims are a nation. This is not true. Do all Muslims belong to the same nation?
        Why don’t you accept immigration of all Indian Muslims. Why don’t Dubai accept immigration of all Pakistanis? Hindus are not a nation and Muslims are also not a nation. Besides, Pakistan was created in the name of Islamic separatism and Muslim brotherhood. Indus valley civilization has nothing to do with Mohammad and Arab Animals but has lot to do with our Hindu brothers.

  8. @omarali50 said:

    LOL> Khalid sahib has clearly been reading rupeenews and is unaware of the fact that almost the entire leadership of TNT 1.0 came from the Gangetic plain and most of its deluded voters came from East Bengal. Of course, the Bengalis figured out their mistake in 1971 and the Gangetic refugees in Jinnahpur figured it out by the 1980s (see Altaf Bhai for details), so now the Indus man BS is all we have left.
    This too shall pass.

  9. Nirmal Maunder said:

    This new 2 nation theory,shia vs Suni is just the beginning,There are further theories in offing,barelvi,deobandi are also separate nations for some.Noreen is right.Indus valley civilization has nothing to do with pakistan.Actually it is all a conflict between civilized & uncivilized.The uncivilized financed & supported by te most uncivilized strong nation of the world,the saudis,hold the upper hand.all civilized are hiding in their homes or abroad afraid of being branded kafirs or blasphemors.

  10. Shahamat said:

    Two nation theory 2.0 is a reality in Pakistan and it is as ridiculous as the original two nation theory. We have given three centuries to the nation states and hopefully the internet generation will successfully escape the limitations of this arrangement.
    In 2.0 world there is no room for ideological divides. This is the key lesson and the reason behind post internet world that is forming. All divides are economical and eventually driven by pursuit of power veiled under this and that philosophy. A wise man once said 'there is no formal conspiracy … the interests of the power hungry converge and they will form a cartel at the top. In every era this is what happens and from Muslim reformists to Zionist monopolists this story remains the same and so do the conflicting groups; the masses and the powerful. In every conflict and every atrocity in human history these are the two players and masses always suffer due to their paranoia and sheep like mentality.
    I agree that there is Shia genocide going on in Pakistan the Sunni majority is surprisingly quite but when writing about such issues we need to inform both sides of the equation. Just like takfiri deoband is hell bent upon thier version of the story so are ahl e tashhee. Both need to let go of their versions of truth to have any forward movement and that dear Khalid and Kunwar is the key issue to address. Deoband or SSP or SM are all symptoms of a mind set of self righteousness that plagues all along the banks of Indus regardless of religion, sect or ethnicity. Ironically Shias and Sunnis are not two sects in definition they are just two political groups for there is no difference in ideology just a disagreement on historical facts.
    The solution hangs on letting go of all that we believe and having faith.

  11. zahid mughal said:

    as the accept of todays tow nation theory is v.good current position

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